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Month: September 2018

International Travel Vaccination

International travellers often face health issues which they wouldn’t usually experience in their home country. With a little thought and preparation, you might just have an illness-free exciting international travel.

“Have you got your shots?”

The question is not as inappropriate as it sounds. There are few places on earth you literally can’t visit without getting vaccinated; several countries made vaccinations a mandatory requirement. It’s always better to be safe than sorry. Do you really want some wild tropical disease ruining the travel you’ve been planning for months/years?

You should find out in advance whether any specific vaccinations may be recommended for travel to the region of the world you’ll be visiting. It’s also a good time to re-examine your own vaccination history. Travel experts always recommend that no matter where you’re travelling, you should make sure you’re up-to-date on routine vaccinations like T-dap (diphtheria/tetanus/whooping cough), annual flu shots and measles/mumps/rubella.

Not convinced? Think again: The world of infectious diseases is dynamic with unexpected outbreaks. Measles is on the rise in Europe this year and most of the European countries lost their grip on infectious diseases (mostly driven by the anti-vaxxer movement). And you will feel “There’s no place like home” when you encounter a bout of flu on the road.

International travel vaccination Mumbai

Vaccinations I need to have before travelling abroad?

Once you decide that your international travel plans, it’s wise to make an appointment with a travel health clinic to discuss your general health and immunization needs. Whether or not you will need particular vaccines, depending on several factors, including:

  • Your risk of exposure to diseases in the visiting countries
  • Your age, health condition, and vaccination history
  • The presence of additional individual risk factors, such as having pre-existing cardiovascular disease, pregnancy or having a condition that might weaken your immune system.
  • Length of travel abroad

The World Health Organization and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that all travellers be up-to-date with the routine schedule of vaccinations and booster shots. These routine vaccines include:

  • Tetanus/ Diphtheria/pertussis (Tdap)
  • Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
  • Measles/mumps/rubella (MMR)
  • Rotavirus

Some vaccinations are simply recommended while others are required if travelling to specific countries. Very few vaccines are classified as required (mandatory) by International Health Regulations. The yellow fever vaccination is required for travel to countries in the sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. Meningococcal vaccine is required by Saudi Arabia for pilgrims visiting Mecca and Medina for the annual (Hajj) or at any time (Umrah). Other vaccines, for example, “Recommended” vaccinations are given to protect travellers from illnesses that occur routinely in other parts of the world. Some examples of vaccines that may be recommended for international travellers (remember you may need more or fewer depending on your individual circumstances) include Hepatitis A, rabies, typhoid fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis etc.

Weigh the costs of vaccinations

Travel experts recommend that before travelling to a developing region, you visit a travel clinic — where the doctors’ major focus is on helping you stay healthy on the road — at least six weeks before your trip. But there’s a catch: routine shots are covered by most health insurance plans, a trip to a travel clinic and vaccines that are recommended or required for travel are usually not.

How long do the vaccinations last?

Many vaccines which are used today are relatively new. Lifelong immunity is not always provided by either vaccination or natural infection (getting the disease). The suggested timing of vaccine doses aims to achieve the best immune protection to cover the period in life when vulnerability to the disease is highest. Waning immunity is a problem for few vaccines. Tetanus needs regular boosters for good protection and you have to get a flu vaccine each and every year. High-risk groups are who travel to southern hemisphere in summer. This is because the flu virus mutates and it is a ruthless master of disguise, usually rendering the previous year’s vaccine partly or totally ineffective.

Recommended Adult Immunizations for Foreign Travel

  • Hep A – 2 doses
  • Hep B- 3 doses
  • HPV – 3 doses
  • Typhoid Fever – 1 dose; a booster every 2 years
  • Meningococcal – 1 dose
  • MMR- 2 doses
  • Tdap – 2 doses
  • Rabies- 3 doses
  • Yellow fever – 1 dose
  • Chicken pox – 2 doses
  • Influenza- 1 dose

(Read about : Immunization for students going abroad)

Side effects

Vaccinations are like any other medication in that they can have side effects. These are generally unpleasant rather than unsafe, although very rarely severe allergic reactions can occur. There’s no evidence that they disrupt your immune system in any way.

The most common reactions are mild headaches and fever, soreness around the injection site (sometimes with redness and swelling), and maybe nausea, vomiting or a general feeling of being unwell. Hepatitis A vaccine, for example, can occasionally give you a fever in the evening while tetanus commonly gives you a sore arm.

Travel vaccines India

What to do for diseases for which there are no vaccines?

Vaccines are available for only a few of the diseases. For instance, there are no vaccines for malaria, ebola, dengue fever, dysentery sexually transmitted infections (STIs) etc.

Malaria, for example, is present in over 100 countries and 40% of the World’s population is at risk. Large areas of Southern and central America, the Middle East, Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Oceania are considered malaria risk areas. There is not a vaccine available for malaria, but your doctor can prescribe preventive or prophylactic antimalarial medications. Always consult your doctor or a reputed travel clinic for advice on diseases without vaccinations.

Travel insurance:

While we’re talking about tropical diseases and staying healthy on the road, think also about Travel insurance as the peace of mind it buys is worth every penny. Whatever you may decide for vaccination but you should make sure to travel abroad with insurance. Don’t let the extra money deter you from making the investment of travel insurance and it’s a true travel essential, alongside your passport and money. However, read the entire policy before purchasing and international travel is not a time you want any shockers. Keep in mind that most insurance is sold in packages, so it’s important to comb through the inclusions in each to pick the package best tailored for you.

Fayth Clinic provides the best vaccination program in Mumbai. They are famous as the international travel vaccination providers in Mumbai, India.

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International student vaccination

Going to university abroad can be quite a daunting time for young students. With many leaving home for the first time and trying to remember to pack all the essentials, it can be easy to forget some of the more important things to do. Researching the health and safety concerns of your destination country is a crucial step in planning for a successful stay abroad. Before you go, consult Medical professionals in your area to find out the specific vaccinations you may required to have, before entering your host country or countries in which you wish to travel.

immunization for students going abroad

What vaccinations should I get?

One of the commonly asked questions by the students is “What vaccinations should I get for my semester abroad?” While there is no perfect answer for the question, as there is slightly differing vaccination recommendations from country to country. Documentation of all vaccinations may be required at your host university and that should be recorded as per existing WHO norms. Health cards or forms that are not properly stamped are not accepted by universities in many countries. Most of the American and European universities have ‘University Immunization Form’ which must be submitted in its original format. Students must complete the form and have it signed and stamped by a medical provider. Most of western universities permit students to register for classes even if the students are in the process of completing any of the vaccines that require multiple doses. However, they may terminate your studies if you do not complete the immunization schedule. Some universities may grant an exemption from the mandatory immunization requirement due to medical reasons or due to religious beliefs.

So what can I do if I cannot access my prior immunization records?

There are two ways to establish your vaccination history. Vaccination records from your physician will be sufficient in most cases. When those records are not available, having your blood titres drawn will provide the documentation you need. The tests will check your immune status to vaccinations or diseases you have received in the past. Positive titres result means that you have ample immunity to a particular infectious disease. Therefore, you don’t require getting that particular vaccine. However, when your titre results are negative, you may have to get the vaccinations your school or university requires. Please plan accordingly as the reports of these tests can often take a few days.

Types of vaccinations for international students

The three categories of vaccines to consider are required, routine and recommended

Required vaccines:

The yellow fever vaccine is an example of a required vaccination and it is required for entry into parts of South America and Africa. Japanese encephalitis is prevalent in Southeast Asia. Both diseases are mosquito-borne. Hepatitis B or rabies vaccinations may be required depending on the type of travel and activities the students are doing. Smallpox is officially declared eradicated by the World Health Organization. However, country regulations change often, so a vaccination may be required.

Routine immunizations:

This differs with respect to countries. For example, any student attending higher education in the USA is required to submit proofs for vaccinations or lab report confirming immunity.

  • Two vaccinations against MMR- Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
  • 3 or 4 series of Hepatitis B shots administered over a 6 month period. Students who received the Hepatitis B shots in a different administration schedule should also present titre results proving immunity.
  • One tetanus/ Diphtheria booster given within the past ten years
  • Students residing on campus should be immunized against meningocccal meningitis
  • The polio vaccination remains one of the routine vaccinations in US. Four (4) doses of IPV or OPV.Required for students who will be younger than 18
  • Two doses of varicella ( chicken pox vaccine ) to be given.

Recommended (but not mandatory) vaccinations:

These include the classic travel vaccines for most developing countries where the health infrastructure is poor such as typhoid vaccine. Some European universities recommend that all female students to take the HPV (Cervical Cancer) vaccination.

vaccination program in Mumbai

How should I plan my vaccination schedule?

  • You should plan appointments in advance, since many vaccinations require more than one visit to a clinic or cannot be taken together.
  • If you plan to travel outside your destination country or to several regions within that country, check the health requirements for those additional places. There are some countries or regions for which you may need extra immunizations, or where you may need to take additional precautions for the handling and consumption of certain foods and/or water.
  • Students have to visit a reputed travel clinic at least six to eight weeks before they travel, because some medications need to be started early and some vaccines are a series of vaccines. Hepatitis A, Tetanus, typhoid, yellow fever, and the meningococcal vaccine are all single-dose vaccines, but Hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, and rabies vaccines require multiple shots.
  • Always seek advice from the travel clinic at least a month prior to travel to ensure that vaccinations and other medications, like malaria pills have enough time to be effective.
  • If you depart in less than four weeks, you should still visit the travel clinic. You might benefit from shots or medications and your doctor will advise you of the precautionary measures while taking the trip.

Fayth Clinic provides the best immunization/vaccination program in Mumbai. It is very important to take vaccination before going to abroad for studying. You can get the best and effective vaccination and medical certification from Fayth Clinic. To get more details of immunization for students going abroad, please contact us…..

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Health Needs Of Students Studying Abroad

Overseas study programs are increasing in availability and geographic diversity; they offer students an exciting opportunity for learning and cultural exchange. For students planning to study abroad, the preparations don’t end after selecting an institution, filling up forms, applying for scholarships, writing exams, applying for a visa and booking air tickets. Future international students should also spend some time to research the health needs, risks and resources available in their destination country.

Students may be at increased risk of sickness due to the environmental and cultural differences, such as climate extremes, inadequate sanitation, food choices and travel problems. Insurance requirements and Medical care quality can vary widely from one country to another. Students need to take different pre-departure measures to prepare themselves, depending on their destination.

Here are few often overlooked health-care-related questions students should consider as they plan their international studies.

Will I need to purchase health insurance?

This important aspect is often overlooked but it is always sensible to pack a safety net. Reputed overseas University websites generally contain information about health insurance requirements and options for international students. While having an insurance policy is a must in universities in the US and Schengen area, it is optional in the UK and South East Asian countries such as Singapore and Malaysia.

Some countries don’t mandate the international students to purchase insurance as they have public health care systems. For example, Sweden allows international students staying for a year or longer to receive public health benefits simply by registering with the Swedish Tax Agency. Other countries, such as Germany and Australia require foreign students to have insurance coverage.

What vaccinations do I need?

Medical professionals can help students determine what vaccines they will need based on any pre-existing health conditions, where they are going, and what they will be doing. Students going abroad for longer periods of time should have full physical and dental exams before they leave. Several universities/ countries have specific vaccination requirements that need to be fulfilled before arrival.

Health needs of students studying abroad


The three categories of vaccines to consider are required, recommended and routine.The yellow fever vaccine is an example of a required vaccination and it is required for entry into parts of South America and Africa. The recommended vaccinations include the classic travel vaccines for most developing countries where the health infrastructure is poor would be typhoid and hepatitis A. Students routine immunizations differs with respect to countries and in the U.S. for example, it includes Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Meningococcal, Mumps and the flu.

Documentation of all immunizations should be taken and may be necessary at your host university. It is the student’s responsibility to be aware of the up-to-date health information and vaccination requirements regarding the locations to which they plan to travel.

Mental Health considerations

Overseas study programs can be a rewarding and challenging experience for all students. However, it can also present Acculturative stress for students due to culture shock, unfamiliarity, removal from home support system and language barriers. However, what can be even more challenging is the exposure to a massive degree of cultural diversity inside and outside the classrooms. Students may also stumble upon great difficulties in adapting to unfamiliar teaching styles or getting along with peers endorsing different – if not incompatible –worldviews and values. Even for enthusiastic students without a history of mental health conditions, this can influence their overall wellbeing.

Prior to departure, students should consult a mental health practitioner about their intended study abroad plans, including which countries they would visit, what you would be doing, and the duration of the program. Students can get an idea of the types of support resources for their mental health that will be required for the duration of their study abroad program.

Health considerations

Should I bring any over-the-counter medications?

Prescription medications in one country may be prohibited or illegal in another. Students can contact consulates or embassies to find out if certain medications can be legally used abroad.Before leaving the country, students should get a signed prescription that contains both the medication’s generic and brand names.

Food isn’t just functional, it’s emotional

Two common ways to become sick while abroad are eating and drinking contaminated food and beverages. Nowadays, Students from many countries are increasingly interested in local, organic, healthy food choices – and many universities are responding in kind. The desire for home cuisine goes deeper than just craving certain tastes. The significance of home foods may not seem so important while at home, the strength of the link between diet and identity often becomes very clear when you stay abroad for long periods. Students may be overwhelmed by the choices they make around food, especially if they are experiencing other symptoms of culture shock such as loneliness and homesickness. It is indispensable that you research the diet and cuisine of the country you are in, to see how you can satisfy your personal dietary needs.

Health Needs Of Students Mumbai

Precautionary measures:

Self-care should be a daily priority and always be prepared. For the students who are prone to seasonal allergies or have digestive problems, always take precautionary measures. Asians especially students from India can’t bear the extreme cold climate of western countries. Collect warm clothes and keep flu medicines before winter begins in their country. Take vitamin C, drink hot beverages to keep yourself healthy and hydrate your body well with sufficient water. Exercising regularly is an individual choice but the health benefits of regular exercise and physical activity are hard to ignore particularly for students. You also need to assess the risk of what’s prevalent in that country in terms of infectious diseases.

Studying abroad will undoubtedly be a magical experience of your life. It is a quintessential experience that every college student wants to have before trudging off to the “real world” of life. Precious few chances come along to go see another world and it’s a privilege to travel, hop on planes, explore new places, new culture and get some new friends. That’s why it can be so disappointing when your poor health while studying abroad gets in the way of you enjoying the expedition of your lifetime. Take care of your health and equip yourself with the people as well as tools you need to have the best trip possible.

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Immunization For Students Going Abroad

You’ve survived the gruelling procedure of researching universities and applying for admission. You’ve tolerated the painful wait for that ‘unkind’ envelope – the acceptance letter. As if these two phases weren’t traumatic enough, you must now go through the nail-biting visa application process. Take a chill pill. It is not intimidating as it seems. Consider this is as a good time to review your own immunization history.

Travel vaccinations in Mumbai

Vaccination requirements for students

In the past few years, there has been an increase in the medical criterion for both students and work visas, after global epidemics such as swine flu and Ebola. So for those who plan to study abroad, it’s essential to be well-versed with the medical tests they may need to undergo after they’re done with the application process. Apart from WHO recommendations, every country has their own medical requirements for the overseas students. Most of the countries now demand students to have a complete full-body check-up, immunization certificates and overall medical certificate from a ‘panel’ hospital from their home country.

For example, there are many formalities to be completed for students travelling to the USA. The medical requirements for these students involve certificates of Immunizations for various diseases. Many students from India travelling to the USA don’t have certificates from their doctors or may not have taken these vaccines. The list of vaccines that are required by many US educational universities, institutions etc. for higher education are mentioned below. Please keep in mind that the individual list of vaccines & other medical requirements may vary between Universities, but the list below covers almost all the necessary vaccines.

  • Hepatitis A : 2 doses at 6 months interval
  • Hepatitis B : 3 doses
  • Meningococcal : single dose
  • Tdap( diphtheria, tetanus, pertusis) : single dose
  • Influenza : single dose
  • MMR( Measles, mumps , rubella) : atleast 2 doses
  • Pneumococcal : 2 doses
  • Varicella (Chicken Pox) : 2 doses
  • Tetanus

All visa applicants should have their immunization records available for the review at the time of the processing of the University applications in order to assist the panel physician and to avoid delays in the processing of a visa. Students should consult with their regular health care provider to obtain a copy of their immunization record if one is available.

Pre-travel Immunizations are important

The highest-risk group for travel-related illnesses tends to be students who think they are at a lower risk. Students who plan to travel abroad for higher studies will need additional immunization as different countries have different health risks and may require specific vaccines. There may also be immunizations that are recommended rather than required, and sometimes this is based on the areas in the country you will be visiting. It is the student’s responsibility to be aware of immunization requirements and the most up-to-date health information regarding the locations to which they plan to travel. Ensure to inform your health professional of any plans to travel to destinations outside of your program itinerary, so that all necessary immunizations can be received prior to departure. Ideally, you should see your physician at least 4- 6 weeks before your international trip to get needed medicines or vaccines. Also remember that certain vaccinations have to be administered well before the departure to be fully effective (i.e., six months prior in the case of Hepatitis A and B).

Immunization for students going abroad

What should last-minute travellers do?

Even if you are making a plan to leave in less than four weeks or last-minute trip, you should still check with your doctor to see if any vaccines or preventive medications might be recommended. There are options for getting the vaccines and medicines you need, albeit you’re a last-minute traveller. Your doctor will also counsel you on other ways to reduce your risk of diseases during travel. Many travel vaccines take time to become fully effective or require multiple shots. However, some immunizations can also be given on an “accelerated schedule,” meaning doses are given in a shorter period of time. Some multiple-dose vaccines can still give you partial protection after just one dose.
It’s imperative to have the health advice and right vaccinations before you travel. Your health and safety are essential, particularly if you want to enjoy your education period to the fullest. This is why you need to get the right advice – based on your medical history, season of travel and duration of stay.

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