The heart is one of the most important organs of the human body. The heart supplies blood to each and every part of the body. The heart has four chambers- two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers are known as atriums and lower chambers are known as ventricles. Right heart is referred to the two right atrium and left heart is the two ventricles. A dual-flap valve that lies between the left ventricles and right atrium is known as mitral valve.
The mitral valve has two cusps that are attached to the papillary muscles. The one-sided mitral valve only opens to the ventricles. It allows blood pumping from the right atrium to the left ventricles. Backflow of blood from the left ventricles to the right atrium is prevented by the mitral valve. The mitral valve may get narrowed due to various reasons. As a result, the amount of blood passed through the valve gets reduced and there can be a back up of blood and fluids in the lungs. This condition is known as valve stenosis. Rheumatic valve can be the main cause of valve stenosis. Balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat the stenosis in the mitral valve.
During the valvotomy procedure, the surgeon will make 2-3 incisions near the groin area. A catheter with a balloon is then inserted into the artery of the patient. When the balloon at the tip of the catheter reaches the mitral valve, it is inflated. The leaves of the mitral valve are pressed by the balloon. This procedure opens up the narrowed artery. The procedure improves the mitral valve stenosis and its symptoms. If the condition occurs after a few months or years, it may need additional treatment. The success of balloon valvotomy depends upon the skill and experience of the surgeon. The procedure is not meant to cure mitral valve stenosis or it cannot make the valve normal. Balloon valvotomy can only reduce the symptoms and improve the functioning of the valve.