PDA or Patent Ductus Arteriosus is one of the common Congenital Heart Diseases. An abnormal connection between the pulmonary artery of the heart and aorta is the major characteristic of this condition. When in the womb, the baby receives oxygen from the mother’s blood circulation. For the same reason, the fetus does not require a blood flow to the lungs. The blood flow is directed to the aorta with the help of the Ductus Arteriosus. Naturally, the ductus arteriosus closes after giving birth to the child. If it does not happen naturally, it will cause a transmission of blood between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This condition is known as Patent Ductus Arteriosus.
Shortness of breath, palpitations, heart murmur etc. are the common symptoms of this condition. The PDA can be sometimes asymptomatic. There are a number of other conditions that are similar to a PDA. The main diagnostic method is the echocardiography. In some cases, CXR and ECG are also performed. PDA closure can be done surgically or non-surgically. No treatment is necessary if the PDA is very small and that does not affect the blood flow of the heart.
The nonsurgical method used for PDA closure is known as Cardiac Catheterization. The cardiac catheterization procedure is done under general anesthesia. An incision is made near the groin of the child and a cannula is inserted through it. The doctor will use a fluoroscope, with the help of which the catheter can be carefully guided through. The blockage in the PDA is blocked with the plug at the top of the cannula. The plug is then plugged into the PDA and the cannula is withdrawn. Bleeding from the incision can be prevented through mechanical pressing. The non-surgical PDA closure technique takes around two hours to complete. This procedure is not recommended in the cases if the child is too small or the PDA is very large.